مقایسه حافظه کوتاه مدت، عملکرد خواندن و پیشرفت تحصیلی دو زبانه ها و یک‌زبانه‌ های زودهنگام

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار، گروه علوم تربیتی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف مقایسه حافظه کوتاه مدت، عملکرد خواندن و پیشرفت تحصیلی دو زبانه ها و یک‌زبانه‌ های زودهنگام و ارائه یک الگوی تبینی در دانش آموزان پسریک زبانه و دو زبانه انجام شده است. تعداد380 دانش آموز پایه پنجم دبستان شهر بجنورد با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای چند مرحله ای به عنوان نمونه تحقیق انتخاب شدند. جهت سنجش حافظه کوتاه مدت از اشکال پیچیده ری و استریت ، جهت سنجش عملکرد خواندن از ابزار عملکرد خواندن و نارساخوانی (نما) و ازمیانگین نمرات پایان سال دروس ریاضی، فارسی و علوم به منظور سنجش پیشرفت تحصیلی استفاده شد. تحلیل داده ها نشان داد که در هر دو گروه، اثر مستقیم حافظه کوتاه مدت بر پیشرفت تحصیلی و اثر غیرمستقیم حافظه کوتاه مدت بر پیشرفت تحصیلی با واسطه عملکرد خواندن مثبت و معنادا دار بود و بالاترین ضریب مسیر بین حافظه کوتاه مدت و پیشرفت تحصیلی و پایین ترین ضریب بین عملکرد خواندن و پیشرفت تحصیلی مشاهده شد. در تمام مؤلفه ها بجز خرده مقیاس های حذف آواها و خواندن ناکلمات (در متغیر عملکرد خواندن) دوزبانه ها نمرات بالاتری داشتند. نتیجه آن که یادگیری مهارت های یک زبان مانند خواندن و نوشتن به غنی سازی مهارت های زبان دیگر و افزایش آواها و معانی در حافظه کمک می‌کند و تبحر بدست آمده در یک زبان به زبان دیگر منتقل می‌شود. لذا افراد دوزبانه به دلیل برخورداری از دانش و اطلاعات و تجربه های بیشتر در حوزه های زبانی مختلف مهارت های بیشتری در مقایسه با یک زبانه ها دارند. پژوهش حاضر با هدف مقایسه حافظه کوتاه مدت، عملکرد خواندن و پیشرفت تحصیلی دو زبانه ها و یک‌زبانه‌ های زودهنگام و ارائه یک الگوی تبینی در دانش آموزان پسریک زبانه و دو زبانه انجام شده است. تعداد380 دانش آموز پایه پنجم دبستان شهر بجنورد با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای چند مرحله ای به عنوان نمونه تحقیق انتخاب شدند. جهت سنجش حافظه کوتاه مدت از اشکال پیچیده ری و استریت ، جهت سنجش عملکرد خواندن از ابزار عملکرد خواندن و نارساخوانی (نما) و ازمیانگین نمرات پایان سال دروس ریاضی، فارسی و علوم به منظور سنجش پیشرفت تحصیلی استفاده شد. تحلیل داده ها نشان داد که در هر دو گروه، اثر مستقیم حافظه کوتاه مدت بر پیشرفت تحصیلی و اثر غیرمستقیم حافظه کوتاه مدت بر پیشرفت تحصیلی با واسطه عملکرد خواندن مثبت و معنادا دار بود و بالاترین ضریب مسیر بین حافظه کوتاه مدت و پیشرفت تحصیلی و پایین ترین ضریب بین عملکرد خواندن و پیشرفت تحصیلی مشاهده شد. در تمام مؤلفه ها بجز خرده مقیاس های حذف آواها و خواندن ناکلمات (در متغیر عملکرد خواندن) دوزبانه ها نمرات بالاتری داشتند. نتیجه آن که یادگیری مهارت های یک زبان مانند خواندن و نوشتن به غنی سازی مهارت های زبان دیگر و افزایش آواها و معانی در حافظه کمک می‌کند و تبحر بدست آمده در یک زبان به زبان دیگر منتقل می‌شود. لذا افراد دوزبانه به دلیل برخورداری از دانش و اطلاعات و تجربه های بیشتر در حوزه های زبانی مختلف مهارت های بیشتری در مقایسه با یک زبانه

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison Short Term Memory, Reading Performance and Academic Achievement of Early Bilingual and Monolinguals

نویسنده [English]

  • Aboutaleb Seadatee Shamir
Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The aim of the current study is to compare short term memory, reading performance and academic achievement of early bilingual and monolingual student and also presenting a well fitted model for interpretation of these interrelationship based on the theoretically recommended model. Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, a battery of reading measures and three elementary courses (Farsi, science, and Math) were used to assess short term memory, reading performance and academic achievement in turn. These tests were administered to 380 (188 ML and 192 BL) male primary student at grade five (12-13 years of age) in Persian. SEM and Analyses of variance (ANOVA) were then performed to determine which construct served as the best predictor of academic achievement in both groups. Based on the results, there is a significant relationship among short term memory, reading performance and academic achievement in both groups. But short term memory was the best predictor for academic achievement. Moreover, the highest significant relationship exists between short term memory and reading comprehension, while direct path coefficient between reading performance and academic achievement was the lowest. Indirect path coefficient between short term memory and academic achievement was not significant in both groups. Furthermore, ANOVA demonstrate that BL yielded significantly higher scores than did ML group in all variables except phoneme deletion and pseudo word reading.The aim of the current study is to compare short term memory, reading performance and academic achievement of early bilingual and monolingual student and also presenting a well fitted model for interpretation of these interrelationship based on the theoretically recommended model. Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, a battery of reading measures and three elementary courses (Farsi, science, and Math) were used to assess short term memory, reading performance and academic achievement in turn. These tests were administered to 380 (188 ML and 192 BL) male primary student at grade five (12-13 years of age) in Persian. SEM and Analyses of variance (ANOVA) were then performed to determine which construct served as the best predictor of academic achievement in both groups. Based on the results, there is a significant relationship among short term memory, reading performance and academic achievement in both groups. But short term memory was the best predictor for academic achievement. Moreover, the highest significant relationship exists between short term memory and reading comprehension, while direct path coefficient between reading performance and academic achievement was the lowest. Indirect path coefficient between short term memory and academic achievement was not significant in both groups. Furthermore, ANOVA demonstrate that BL yielded significantly higher scores than did ML group in all variables except phoneme deletion and pseudo word reading.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Short Term Memory
  • Reading Performance
  • Academic Achievement
  • Early Bilingualism and Early Monolinguals
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